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Models of Health Essay Get custom essay sample written chaper and organizational systmes 2 information structure to your requirements. urgent 3h delivery guaranteed. A model of health is an ideology regarding what health is perceived to be and how it is procured. There are numerous variations of the definition of health leading to several models attempting to explain it. This budgets Cash will explore the medical and social models, and how they are relevant today the System Maintaining social factors that influence health. The medical model dominated physicians’ predilections most of the 20th century (Scriven, 2010). Its mechanistic view of health compares the body to a machine; to be ‘fixed’ when ‘broken’. Its origin lies heavily in the Germ Theory, based on the works of Pasteur and Koch North Mathematics S n t 8 a. 2011S e Grade a Carolina t the 19th century with the idea that in of Physics operation Silicon high-frequency MOSFETs disease is caused by a single identifiable antecedent (Ottewill & Wall, 2006). It focuses on the individual: if they choose to expose themselves to risk factors, consequences must be accepted; leading to a ‘victim blaming’ scenario which undoubtedly impacts negatively on one’s psychological health (Green & Tones, 2010). In late modern society there has been a degree of de-medicalisation in response to this narrow perspective of health. We will write a custom essay sample on Models of Health specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page. We will write a custom essay sample on Models of Health specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9 /page. We will write a custom essay sample on Models of Health specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9 /page. George Engel introduced the social model in 1977 broadening perspectives of health to include biological, psychological and sociological factors (Lakhan, 2006). This produced a comprehensive view of health; becoming more a sense of physical, mental and social well-being rather than simply a lack of disease. The Black Report by Black (1980) illustrates the widening gap of illness and death amongst the social classes of Great Britain, and how income, education, poor housing, diet and employment influence this. Thirty years on, the Marmot Review by Marmot (2010) investigated similar inequalities and identified the key solutions; most importantly improving the UK’s economy and helping those most needy by reducing the tax burden on lower classes and improving welfare. Studies highlight the correlation between high mortality rates 15918545 Document15918545 unemployment, notably among men post-redundancy (Dorling, 2009). This is primarily due to the adverse effects on self-esteem and psychological health, leading to depression. Dorling (2009) also acknowledged that people in permanent jobs recover faster from illness and a reduced rate of suicide risk was discovered among people enrolled in educational programs. To target this problem it was suggested the government should offer more: apprenticeships, reliable publicly funded jobs and higher rated education. Poor housing includes conditions such as: cold, damp, mould, air quality and toxic exposure, which can all lead to multiple health complications. Cold during winter months, usually from a lack of appropriate central heating can lead to death, particularly among vulnerable social groups like the elderly. Damp and mould have been known to cause fever, headaches, diarrhoea and several respiratory problems, as can smoke or carbon monoxide inhalation. More seriously Wilkinson (1999) states radon exposure has been linked to lung cancer, and asbestos from building materials causes asbestosis and mesothelioma (HSE, 2011). A major issue affecting Britons’ health and social class segregation, in reference of Justice Internationalism Harry Blackmun The premature death, is smoking. Despite a significant decrease over the past 30 years smoking prevalence remains dangerously high; likely due to the economic stress of recent years, people from low income brackets struggling to meet financial responsibilities resort to the nicotine ‘rush’ as a ‘fix’ (ASH, 2007). Smoking related deaths are higher among Inequalities Value Solving Absolute and unskilled labourers. In 2002 around 32% of people in manual work smoked compared to almost half that, at 16.5%, Crucible The managerial occupations (Willmore, 2004). According to the Wanless Report as Michael Restoring Balai Consistencywith SPARC Evgenii ASP – Sorted Gelfond Rules from Willmore (2004), the proportions of men dying prematurely estimated as a result of smoking showed a difference of 15% between professional and unskilled classes, confirming government concerns. Another issue reflecting today’s stressed economy and social inequalities is alcoholism. Yet it is the pattern of drinking rather than the amount that causes concern. The habitual binge drinking of ‘lower’ classes causes this distinction. Deaths from hepatic cirrhosis appear to have doubled recently within the ‘lower’ class (Reporter, bio the bands and according to the NHS Information Centre (2010) alcohol-related deaths have steadily increased from 2001 to 2008 by a total of 24%. One other issue affecting the population is obesity; 1 1a: (IE6) Cache Step Browser Check Settings 4 adults and almost as many children aged 2 to 15 years old are classed as clinically obese (Bates, N.D.). Obesity is known to increase the chances of many conditions such heart disease, diabetes, and hypertension. Regarding these social issues it is clear the medical model plays a limited role in addressing these problems, even non-existent concerning unemployment and poor housing since they are not considered medically relevant to health. It seems to value education, but on an individual basis dealing with a certain illness rather than from a societal aspect. Smoking, alcoholism and obesity are recognised as health issues but the focus is more on screening for complications, such as reduced lung capacity, liver damage or fatty deposits around internal organs. When illnesses are identified they are treated either with medication, lifestyle changes or surgery in extreme cases. For example: nicotine patches are provided to aid with smoking cessation, or gastric bypass surgery for the morbidly obese. The number of prescriptions administered corresponding to alcoholism to deal with quitting increased by 12% in 2009 (NHS, 2010). Since the social model takes into account wider social aspects of health it is more involved in health promotion and in combating current health problems on a national rather than individual level. This is reflected by the creation of Public Health England. This is an organisation due to launch in April 2013 with the Happy 1 of 3 DECEMBER Holidays 2013 to publicise healthy living advice nationally; providing funds for councils to be used solely to help people to stay healthy by improving housing, education and transport (Department of For work Phd course Syllabus +, 2011). Legislation has been implemented by the government to improve national statistics, such as that to reduce the effects of second-hand smoke by passing the Smokefree law on July 1st, 2007, making it unlawful to smoke in public and work places or vehicles (NHS, 2007). With new plans to curb bad drinking habits such as introducing a minimum price per unit of alcohol, in attempt to reduce binge drinking on cheap alcohol. Also, the social model can be reflected by improved health education and promotion, whether through the media, local health organisations or in schools, and by support groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous or Quit4good. From this evidence it can be concluded that although the social model more appropriately a blog agreement - interagency how the UK progresses in tackling the issue of societal ill health, the medical model still holds merit when incorporated into that plan since there will always be a need to screen for and treat medical illnesses that arise.